ブリュッセル Brussels 01

The Porte de Hal, the Place du Jeu de Balle, the Palais de Justice, the Église Notre-Dame-de-la-Chapelle, Rue de Rollebeek, the Église Notre-Dame du Sablon and Belgian Beer (Brussels, Belgium)

  1. The Porte de Hal
  2. The Place du Jeu de Balle
  3. The Palais de Justice
  4. The Église Notre-Dame-de-la-Chapelle
  5. Rue de Rollebeek
  6. The Église Notre-Dame du Sablon

Brussels, officially the Brussels-Capital Region is a region of Belgium including the City of Brussels. The city is the de jure capital of Belgium and has a population of about 0.18 million. The region has a population of about 1.2 million and a metropolitan population of around 2.1 million. The region has grown from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city in Europe. Since the end of World War II the region has been a major centre for international politics and has become the home of numerous international organisations. The region is the de facto capital of the European Union as the region hosts a number of principal EU institutions (the other administrative centres are Luxembourg and Strasbourg). The name Brussels is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. Moreover, the secretariat of the Benelux and the headquarters of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) are also located in the region.

Historically Brussels was a Dutch-speaking city and then the city has seen a language shift to French from the late 19th century onwards. The Brussels-Capital Region is today officially bilingual in Dutch and French. And yet, French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. The region is increasingly becoming multilingual as it is home to many international institutions (English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population) and a large number of migrants and expatriates who speak other languages, namely Arabic, Spanish, German and Italian.

Traces of human settlement around Brussels dates from the Stone age. The region was home to Roman occupation during Antiquity. The region was incorporated into the Kingdom of the Franks following the decline of the Western Roman Empire.

The settlement which was to become Brussels originated from a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580. The official founding of Brussels is usually situated around 979 when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of St. Gudula to the chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the town on the same island.

Lambert I of Leuven (Count of Leuven) gained the County of Brussels around 1000. Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade because of its location on the shores of the Senne on an important trade route. The Counts of Leuven became Dukes of Brabant in 1183. The Duchy of Brabant (unlike the County of Flanders) was not fief of the king of France but was incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire. The town got its first walls in the early 13th century. Afterwards, the second set of walls was built to let the town expand from 1356 to 1383 as the town grew significantly. The Duke of Brabant was inherited by the House of Valois-Burgundy in 1406 as a result of the marriage of Margaret III of Flanders (the only heir of the Duke of Brabant) with the Burgundian duke Philip the Bold in 1369.

The Burgundian duke Charles the Bold perished in the Battle of Nancy in 1477 and then the Duchy of Brabant became part of the House of Habsburg as a result of the marriage of his daughter Mary of Burgundy (who was born in Brussels) to Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Brussels became the capital of the Burgundian Netherlands (also known as the Seventeen Provinces) and flourished. Philip the Handsome succeeded as the Duke of Brabant and he became King of Castile in 1506. Hence the period of the Spanish Netherlands began. Charles V was declared King of Spain in the Cathedral of St. Michael and St. Gudula of Brussels in 1516. In 1519 he became the new ruler of the Habsburg Empire and was elected Holy Roman Emperor. He abdicated in the former royal palace in Brussels in 1555. Louis XIV of France sent troops to bombard Brussels with artillery in 1695 during the War of the League of Augsburg. It was the most destructive event in the entire history of the city. The Grand Place was destroyed along with 4000 buildings which were a third of all the buildings in the city.

The Spanish sovereignty over the Southern Netherlands was transferred to the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg following the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The city was captured by France in 1746 during the War of the Austrian Succession and was handed back to Austria 3 years later. The city remained with Austria until 1795 when the Southern Netherlands were captured and annexed by France. The French rule ended in 1815 with the defeat of Napoleon on the Battle of Waterloo. The battlefield is located south of current Brussels-Capital Region. The Southern Netherlands joined the United Kingdom of the Netherlands as a result of the Congress of Vienna.

In 1830, the Belgian Revolution took place in Brussels after a performance of an opera at La Monnaie theatre and Brussels became the capital of the new nation. Leopold I ascended the throne in 1831. He undertook the destruction of the city walls and the construction of many buildings.

Brussels was an occupied city but German forces did not cause much damage during World War I. The city was again occupied and was spared major damage by German forces during World War II.

Brussels underwent extensive modernisation after the war. Brussels became the de facto capital of what would become the European Union. The Brussels-Capital Region was formed in 1989 after a constitutional reform in 1988.

On 22 March 2016 coordinated bombings were detonated by ISIL at Brussels Airport and at a metro station in Brussels. The act resulted in 32 victims. The act was the deadliest act of terrorism in Belgium.

Eurostar connects London with Brussels (and some cities including Paris in France). Trains traverse the Channel Tunnel between the United Kingdom and France. It takes around 2 hours by Eurostar from London to Brussels (from St. Pancras International station to Brussels-South station).

The Porte de Halアル門は、中世の要塞化されたブリュッセルの第2の城壁の市門です。アル門は、1381年に建てられました。他の6つの門や城壁は撤去された一方、アル門は(監獄として使用され)生き残りました。アル門は、1868~1870年にゴシック・リヴァイヴァル様式で、修復されました。
The Porte de Hal (the Halle Gate) is a medieval fortified city gate of the second walls of Brussels. The gate was built in 1381. The gate survived (as the gate was used as a prison) while the other 6 gates and the defensive walls were demolished. The gate was restored from 1868 to 1870 in the Gothic Revival style.

The Place du Jeu de BalleThe Place du Jeu de Balle北に向かってアル門からブリュッセルの中心への道中、ジュ・ド・バル広場のフリーマーケットに立ち寄りました。ジュ・ド・バル広場のフリーマーケットは、週7日、1年365日、開催されており、500の露店があります。
You have dropped in a flea market at the Place du Jeu de Balle on your way from the Halle Gate the centre of Brussels towards the north. The flea market opens seven days a week and 365 days a year (from 6am to 2pm on weekdays and from 6am to 3pm on weekends). The flea market has 500 stalls and shops.

The Palais de Justice司法宮またはブリュッセル最高裁判所が、ジュ・ド・バル広場近くに立っています。司法宮は、1866~1883年に折衷主義で建てられました。司法宮は、19世紀に建設された最も大きな建物と言われ、ブリュッセルの有名なランドマークです。司法宮の建設は、レオポルド2世の治世に行われましたが、レオポルド2世は、ほとんど興味を示しませんでした。したがって、司法宮は、レオポルド2世のブリュッセルの広範な建築計画または建設王としてのレオポルド2世の遺産の一部とは、考えられてはいません。
The Palais de Justice (the Palace of Justice) or Law Courts of Brussels stands near the Place du Jeu de Balle. The building was built from 1866 to 1883 in the eclectic style. The building is reputed to be the largest building constructed in the 19th century and is a notable landmark of Brussels. The construction took place during the reign of Leopold II but he showed little interest in the building. Therefore, the building is not considered part of his extensive architectural program in the city or his legacy as the Builder-King.

The Église Notre-Dame-de-la-ChapelleThe Église Notre-Dame-de-la-Chapelleノートルダム・ド・ラ・シャペル教会(聖母マリア礼拝堂の教会)は、カトリックの教会です。ノートルダム・ド・ラ・シャペル教会は、ルーヴァン伯ジョフロワ1世によって1134年に創設されました。現在の構造物は、13世紀にさかのぼります。構造物の一部は、アウクスブルク同盟戦争の最中の1695年に、フランス軍によって損害を受けました。ノートルダム・ド・ラ・シャペル教会は、1866年、1989年に再び、修復されました。
The Église Notre-Dame-de-la-Chapelle (the Church of Our Lady of the Chapel) or the Église de la Chapelle (the Chapel Church) is a Catholic church. The church was founded in 1134 by Godfrey I of Leuven. The present structure dates from the 13th century. Part of the structure was damaged by the French forces in 1695 during the War of the League of Augsburg. The church was restored in 1866 and again in 1989.

Rue de RollebeekRue de RollebeekRue de RollebeekRue de Rollebeekノートルダム・ド・ラ・シャペル教会からノートルダム・デュ・サブロン教会へ向かう途中、賑やかな通り(ロルビーク通り)を歩いていきます。たくさんの魅力的なレストランやカフェがあります。
You are walking along a bustling street (Rue de Rollebeek) on the way from the Church of Our Lady of the Chapel towards Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon Church. There are many attractive restaurants and cafes.

Rue de RollebeekRue de Rollebeek聖ミカエルの黄金の像が、通りを見下ろしています。ドラゴンを倒そうとしているので聖ジョージ(聖ゲオルギオス)と思ったのですが、背中に羽があるので聖ジョージ(聖ゲオルギオス)ではないと思います。聖ミカエルは、ブリュッセルの守護聖人であり、ブリュッセル市庁舎の塔の上にもドラゴンか悪魔のようなクリーチャーを倒そうとしている彼の像があるので、彼は聖ミカエルであろうと思います。
The golden statue of St. Michael looks down the street. I thought he should be St. George because he would be slaying a dragon but I think he must not because he has wings on his back. I think he must be St. Michael because he is a patron saint of Brussels and his statue is also slaying a creature like a dragon or devil atop of the tower of the Town Hall of Brussels.

The Église Notre-Dame du Sablonノートルダム・デュ・サブロン教会は、15世紀にさかのぼるカトリックの教会です。ノートルダム・デュ・サブロン教会の特徴は、後期のブラバントのゴシック様式の外観と、2つのバロック様式の礼拝堂を含む豊かな内部の装飾です。
The Église Notre-Dame du Sablon (Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon Church) is a Catholic church dating from the 15th century. The church is characterised by its late Brabantine Gothic exterior and rich interior decoration including 2 Baroque chapels.

The Église Notre-Dame du Sablon身廊の柱には、17世紀中頃にさかのぼる12体のバロック様式の使徒の彫像があります。バロック様式の説教台は、今はもはや存在しないブリュッセルのアウグスティヌス修道院の教会のために、1697年に作られました。説教台は、トマス・アクィナス、聖母マリア、ビラノバの聖トマスの円形浮き彫りによって装飾されています。説教台の台座は、福音記者を象徴する4つの彫刻(天使、鷲、獅子、牡牛)によって形作られています。
The columns of the nave hold 12 Baroque statues of apostles dating from the middle of the 17th century. The Baroque pulpit was executed in 1697 for the church of the Augustinians in Brussels which no longer exists. The pulpit is decorated with medallions of St. Thomas Aquinas, the Virgin and St. Thomas of Villanova. The base on which the pulpit rests is formed by four sculptures symbolising the Evangelists (the angel, the eagle, the lion and the ox).

The Église Notre-Dame du SablonThe Église Notre-Dame du Sablon身廊を通って主祭壇まで歩きました。
You have walked to the main altar through the nave.

The Église Notre-Dame du SablonThe Église Notre-Dame du SablonThe Église Notre-Dame du Sablonノートルダム・デュ・サブロン教会は、17世紀後半に建てられたその2つの壮大なバロック様式の礼拝堂で、非常に有名です。一つは、聖ウルスラに奉献された礼拝堂です。もう一つは、聖マルクフに奉献された礼拝堂です。2つの礼拝堂は、南ネーデルラントで発展したバロック様式の彫刻と建築の素晴らしい実例です。
Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon Church is best known for its 2 magnificent Baroque chapels built in the 2nd half of the 17th century. One is a chapel dedicated to St. Ursula. The other is a chapel dedicated to St. Marcouf. The 2 chapels are excellent examples of the Baroque sculpture and architecture developed in the Southern Netherlands.

The Église Notre-Dame du SablonThe Église Notre-Dame du SablonThe Église Notre-Dame du SablonThe Église Notre-Dame du Sablonノートルダム・デュ・サブロン教会を歩いて回りました。
You have walked around Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon Church.

The Église Notre-Dame du SablonThe Église Notre-Dame du Sablonノートルダム・デュ・サブロン教会の隣の広場のアンティークマーケットは、土曜日と日曜日に開かれます。
The antique market on a square next to Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon Church takes place every Saturday and Sunday.

Tulips were in full bloom around Our Blessed Lady of the Sablon Church.

Belgium has various types of beer such as Trappist beer, Abbey beer, Pilsner (pale lager), White beer (wheat beer), Golden ale, Flanders red ale (Flemish Red), Oud bruin (Flemish sour brown ale), Saison beer, Amber ale, Lambic beer and Fruit beer. There are approximately 180 breweries in the country, ranging from international giants to microbreweries. I enjoyed pilsners this time though I knew that Belgian Pilsners are not particularly distinctive or renowned by connoisseurs. Personally, I think Belgian Pilsners are as good as Czech and German.

You are going to walk around Brussels continuously next time. See you later.