グラナダ Granada 01

The Gate of Pomegranates, the Pillar of Charles V, the Puerta de la Justicia, the Plaza de los Aljibes, the Alcazaba, the Puerta del Vino and the Palace of Charles V (the Alhambra, Granada, Spain)

  1. The Gate of Pomegranates
  2. The Pillar of Charles V
  3. The Puerta de la Justicia
  4. The Plaza de los Aljibes
  5. The Alcazaba
  6. The Puerta del Vino
  7. The Palace of Charles V

Granada is the city (around 240 thousand people) of the autonomous community of Andalusia. The city is located at the foot of the Sierra Nevada (a snowy mountain range in Spanish) and is also located near the Mediterranean coast. The city was the capital of the last Muslim emirate on the Iberian Peninsula which was the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (the Emirate of Granada). The dynasty built the majestic Alhambra.

Granada was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate in 711. Subsequently the caliphate and the succeeding emirate conquered large parts of the Iberian Peninsula until 788. This medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain is called al-Andalus. The city was ruled by the Almoravids dynasty from 1090 and by the Almohad Caliphate from 1166.

The Almohad Caliphate was defeated by an alliance of Christian kingdoms in 1212 and al-Andalus declined. Cordova was captured by King Ferdinand III of Castile in 1236 and the Reconquista was in full swing. Subsequently the Nasrids dynasty established the Emirate of Granada in 1238 and became a taifa (an independent Muslim principality) under the Kingdom of Castile.

The Emirate of Granada was tightly integrated in Mediterranean trade networks and heavily financed by Genoese bankers aiming to gain control of the gold trade through Saharan caravan routes. However the emirate became less important as a regional commercial centre after Portugal opened direct trade routes to Africa by sea in the 15th century.

The union of Castile and Aragon in 1469 signalled the launch of the final assault on the Emirate of Granada. The Granada War began in 1482. Consequently the last Muslim ruler in the Iberian Peninsula surrendered the emirate to Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1492. The 1492 surrender of the Islamic emirate to the Catholic Monarchs marks the completion of the Reconquista of al-Andalus.

The Alhambraアルハンブラ宮殿は、グラナダ南東の丘の上に位置する宮殿および城塞です。アルハンブラ宮殿は、元々は、889年にローマの要塞の廃墟の上に小さな要塞として建てられました。アルハンブラ宮殿は、ナスル朝によって再建され、1333年に王宮になりました。アルハンブラ宮殿は、1492年のレコンキスタの完了に続いて、アラゴン王フェルナンド2世とカスティーリャ女王イサベル1世の宮廷になりました(ここでクリストファー・コロンブスは彼の遠征についての王室の是認を受けました)。その後、アルハンブラ宮殿は、部分的にルネサンスの趣きを得ました。
The Alhambra is a palace and fortress complex located on a hill in the south east of Granada. The Alhambra was originally constructed as a small fortress in 889 on the remains of Roman fortifications. The Alhambra was rebuilt by the Nasrid dynasty and was converted into a royal palace in 1333. The Alhambra became the Royal Court of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile following the conclusion of the Reconquista in 1492 (where Christopher Columbus received royal endorsement for his expedition). The Alhambra acquired Renaissance tastes partially afterwards.

The Alhambraザクロの門を通って、アルハンブラ宮殿に向かいます。ザクロの門は、15世紀にさかのぼる戦勝門です。
You are going to the Alhambra through the Gate of Pomegranates. The gate is a triumphal arch dating from the 15th century.

The Alhambraアルハンブラ宮殿の入口に続く急勾配を上っていきます。
You are climbing a steep leading to the main entrance of the Alhambra.

The Alhambraカール5世の記念柱を通り過ぎます。この噴水は、1554年に建てられ、神聖ローマ皇帝カール5世(スペイン国王カルロス1世)の名前がとられています。
You are passing by the Pillar of Charles V. This fountain was built in 1554 and was named after Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (Charles I of Spain).

The AlhambraThe Alhambra裁きの門と呼ばれるアルハンブラ宮殿の入口に近づいて行きます。裁きの門は、正方形の塔に囲まれた巨大な馬蹄状のアーチ門です。裁きの門の外装の上部に、ファティマの手が彫刻されています。ファティマの手は、悪の目に対する魔除けです。
You are approaching the main entrance of the Alhambra called the Puerta de la Justicia (the Gate of Judgment). The gate is a massive horseshoe archway surmounted by a square tower. The hand of Fatima is carved above the gate on the exterior. The hand is a talisman against the evil eye.

The Alhambra裁きの門を通って、アルハンブラ宮殿に入ります。
You are getting into the Alhambra through the Gate of Judgment.

The Alhambra貯水池広場に出ました。アルカサバ(城塞)が、貯水池広場の先にあります。アルカサバは、台地の北西の端となる切り立った絶壁に建てられています。アルカサバは、アルハンブラ宮殿の最も古い部分です。
You have come to the Plaza de los Aljibes (Place of the Cisterns). The Alcazaba (citadel) is located beyond the place. The Alcazaba is built on the precipitous foreland which terminates the plateau on the northwest. The Alcazaba is the oldest part of the Alhambra.

The AlhambraAlbaicínAlbaicín貯水池広場から、北に向かって、アルバイシン(中世のムーア人の街)を見下ろすことができます。
You can overlook Albaicín (the Medieval Moorish streets) towards the north from the Place of the Cisterns.

The Alhambra貯水池広場からは、東に向かって、ナスル朝宮殿、カール5世の宮殿も見渡すことができます。
You can also overlook the Nasrid Palaces and the Palace of Charles V towards the east from the Place of the Cisterns.

The AlhambraThe AlhambraThe Alhambraアルカサバの先頭の見張り塔に向かって、歩いていきます。
You are walking towards the Torre de la Vela (the Watch Tower) on the forefront of the Alcazaba.

The Alhambraアルカサバの先頭にある見張り塔の上に着きました。見張り塔は、25メートルの高さがあります。アラゴン王フェルナンド2世とカスティーリャ女王イサベル1世の旗が、1492年のスペインのグラナダ征服の象徴として見張り塔にかかげられました。大きな鐘の小塔は、18世紀に付け加えられ、1881年に落雷により損傷の後に修復されました。
You have got to the top of the Watch Tower on the forefront of the Alcazaba. The tower is 25 metres high. The flag of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile was raised on the tower as a symbol of the Spanish conquest of Granada in 1492. A turret containing a large bell was added in the 18th century and was restored after being damaged by lightning in 1881.

The Alhambra振り返ると、アルカサバを見下ろすことができます。
You can overlook the Alcazaba when you turn around.

You can overlook the townscape of Granada towards the west. Granada Cathedral is prominent.

The AlhambraThe AlhambraThe AlhambraThe Alhambra見張り塔を後にして、城壁沿いの緑豊かな庭園を通り、貯水池広場に戻ります。緑と噴水に涼しさを感じます。
You are walking back to the Place of the Cisterns through green gardens along the walls following the Watch Tower. Greens and fountains are refreshing.

The Alhambra貯水池広場に戻って来ました。ブドウ酒の門を通って、宮殿へ向かいます。
You have got back to the Place of the Cisterns. You are going to the palaces through the Puerta del Vino (the Wine Gate).

The Alhambraカール5世の宮殿は、神聖ローマ皇帝カール5世(スペイン国王カルロス1世)によって1526年に建設が命じられたルネサンスの宮殿です。カール5世の宮殿は、革新的なマニエリスム様式でナスル朝のアンダルシアの建築と直に並列に建てられました。しかし、カール5世の宮殿は、完成することはなく、1957年まで屋根がないままでした。
The Palace of Charles V was a Renaissance palace commissioned by Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire (Charles I of Spain) in 1526. The palace was built in the revolutionary Mannerist style in direct juxtaposition with the Nasrid Andalusian architecture. However the palace was not completed and remained roofless until 1957.

The AlhambraThe Alhambraカール5世の宮殿に入りました。カール5世の宮殿の見取図は、円形の中庭をもった正方形(63メートル)であり、ルネサンス建築において前例がありません。円形の中庭は2階層になっています。下層は、正統派の古典的なエンタブラチュアのれき岩のドリス式の柱廊です。
You have got into the Palace of Charles V. The plan of the palace is a square (63 metres) containing an inner circular patio and has no precedent in Renaissance architecture. The circular patio has 2 levels. The lower consists of a Doric colonnade of conglomerate stone with an orthodox classical entablature.

The Alhambra上層階に続く階段を上ります。
You are going up a staircase leading to the upper floor.

The AlhambraThe AlhambraThe Alhambra上層階は、装飾のないエンタブラチュアのイオニア式の柱廊です。
The upper floor is formed by a stylised Ionic colonnade with an entablature has no decoration.

You are going to walk around Granada continuously next time. See you later.