ソールズベリー Salisbury 02

Stonehenge and Old Sarum (Salisbury, England, the United Kingdom)

  1. Stonehenge
  2. Old Sarum

You got on a bus of the Stonehenge Tour from a bus stop at New Canal in Salisbury (or a bus stop at Salisbury rail station) to Stonehenge and Old Sarum. It takes approximately 30 minutes from Salisbury to Stonehenge by bus. Yellow fields of flowers spread on your way.

You got off the tour bus at the visitor centre of Stonehenge. Here is extensive Salisbury Plain.

You are approaching Stonehenge.

Stonehenge is a prehistoric stone circle located about 13 kilometres north of Salisbury. You are walking along a route around Stonehenge counterclockwise.

Archaeologists believe Stonehenge was constructed from 3000 BC to 2000 BC. Furthermore the surrounding circular earth bank and ditch was dated to about 3100 BC.

The biggest stones of Stonehenge (known as sarsens) are up to 9 metres tall and weigh 25 tons on average. It is widely believed that these stones were brought from Marlborough Downs (32 kilometres to the north). Smaller stones (which are referred to as bluestones as they have a bluish tinge when wet or freshly broken) weigh up to 4 tonnes and came from several different sites in western Wales (as far as 240 kilometres away). It is unknown how people in antiquity moved these stones that far.

The outer circle of Stonehenge was made from 30 standing stones called sarsens. On the top of standing stones a row of horizontal stones forms a continuous ring. 5 stone arches known as trilithons make up the horseshoe inside the outer circle. The bluestones form 2 circles inside the outer circle and the horseshoe. The bluestones are the oldest stones at Stonehenge. The bluestones first stood alone. However later other stones were added and the bluestones were moved.

Stonehenge is surrounded by a circular ditch and bank. This circle was one of the earliest structures to be built and dates from before 3000 BC. The avenue leads from the River Avon to Stonehenge. The 5 central trilithons, the heel stone and the avenue are aligned to the sunset of the summer solstice and the opposing sunrise of the winter solstice.

It is unknown why the ancient people in Britain built such a massive monument at Stonehenge. They believed that the Sun and Moon had a special power. It is very likely that they held special ceremonies at Stonehenge at the summer solstice (the longest day of the year) and at the winter solstice (the shortest day of the year). Many experts believe that Stonehenge was used for funerals. The experts suggest that people carried the dead along the River Avon and then walked up to Stonehenge in a procession. The most important funeral ceremony of the year was probably held in the night at the winter solstice at Stonehenge.

Geoffrey of Monmouth included a fanciful story in his Historia Regum Britanniae (around 1136) that attributed the construction of Stonehenge to Merlin (a legendary figure best known as the wizard featured in Arthurian legend). The rocks of Stonehenge were originally healing rocks (called the Round of Giants or the Dance of Giants) which giants brought from Africa to Ireland. In the 5th century King Aurelius Ambrosius wished to set up a memorial to his triumph over the Saxon invaders and to 3,000 nobles slain in battles and buried at Salisbury. Merlin advised bringing the Round of Giants from Ireland to Salisbury. King Uther Pendragon (He had sent Merlin to the King Aurelius Ambrosius) and 15,000 knights tried to remove the stones from Mount Killaraus in Ireland but failed. Then Merlin easily dismantled the stones and sent them over to Salisbury in Britain with his magic. Geoffrey further described how Ambrosius Aurelianus and Uther Pendragon (and also finally Constantine III) were buried inside the Round of Giants namely Stonehenge.

I saw a druid (a priest of the Celtic). Formerly it was said that Stonehenge was the work of Druids. Modern druids apparently continue to gather at Stonehenge for the summer solstice even today. However in the 20th century radiocarbon dating demonstrated that Stonehenge stood more than 1,000 years before the Celts inhabited the region.

You are continuously walking along a route around Stonehenge counterclockwise.

This rough stone is called the heel stone. At summer solstice an observer standing within the stone circle looking towards the north east would see the Sun rise in the approximate direction of the heel stone. The name of the heel stone is related with a folktale. The Devil bought the stones from a woman in Ireland and brought them to Salisbury plain. The Devil then cried out: No one will ever find out how these stones came here. A friar replied: That is what you think. The Devil threw one of the stones at him and struck him on the heel. The stone stuck in the ground and is still there.

Old Sarumストーンヘンジを後にし、ソールズベリーに戻るバス(ストーンヘンジ・ツアーバス)に乗り、オールド・セーレム近くのバス停で下車しました。バスを降りた観光客はほとんどいませんでした。しばらく野原を歩くと、オールド・セーレムの看板がありました。
You left Stonehenge and you got on a bus (the Stonehenge Tour bus) to Salisbury. You got off the bus at a bus stop near Old Sarum. Few tourists got off the bus. You walked around a field to Old Sarum for a while. You can see a sign of Old Sarum.

Old Sarumオールド・セーレムは、ソールズベリーの最初の居住地です。オールド・セーレムは、現在のソールズベリーの北におよそ3キロメートルの丘の上にあります。
Old Sarum is the site of the earliest settlement of Salisbury. Old Sarum is located on a hill about 3 kilometres north of the present Salisbury.

Old SarumOld SarumOld SarumOld SarumOld Sarumオールド・セーレムの丘の上には、紀元前3000年頃の新石器時代の住居の形跡があります。強固な丘の砦が、イギリス鉄器時代の紀元前400年頃に、地元住民によって建設されました。この地は、ローマ時代も使用され続けました。サクソン人が、6世紀に砦を接収し、後にも略奪をほしいままに暴れるヴァイキングに対する拠点として用いられました。ノルマン人は、モットアンドベーリー式の城、城塞(石のカーテンウォール)、大聖堂を建設しました。王宮が、ヘンリー1世のために城の内部に建てられ、プランタジネットの君主達によって使われ続けました。
The hilltop at Old Sarum has evidence of Neolithic settlement as early as 3000 BC. A protective hill fort was constructed by the local inhabitants around 400 BC during the British Iron Age. The site continued to be occupied during the Roman period. The Saxons took the British fort in the 6th century and later used the fort as a stronghold against marauding Vikings. The Normans constructed a motte and bailey castle, a stone curtain wall and a cathedral. A royal palace was built within the castle for King Henry I and was subsequently used by Plantagenet monarchs.

Old Sarumソールズベリー大聖堂にある12世紀のオールド・セーレムの模型です。この地の全盛期は、最終的に教会を近くの平原に移転させることとなったウィルトシャー州長官とソールズベリー司教との紛争まで、300年ほど続きました。新しい町(ソールズベリー)が、13世紀初めに新しい大聖堂の建設地の周りに成長し、古い町は衰退していきました。城は、1322年にエドワード2世によって放棄され、1514年にヘンリー8世によって売却されました。
This is a model of Old Sarum in the 12th century housed at Salisbury Cathedral. This heyday of the site lasted for around 300 years until disputes between the Wiltshire sheriff and the Salisbury bishop finally led to the removal of the church into the nearby plain. The new town (Salisbury) grew up around the construction site for the new cathedral in the early 13th century and the old town dwindled. The castle was abandoned by Edward II in 1322 and sold by Henry VIII in 1514.

Old Sarum実質的に人が居住しなくなってさえも、オールド・セーレムの地主は議会の議席をもち続けました。オールド・セーレムは、最も悪名高い腐敗選挙区でした。
The landowners of Old Sarum continued to have parliamentary representation even though the settlement was effectively uninhabited. Old Sarum was the most notorious of the rotten boroughs.

The rural landscape around Old Sarum on a hill you are overlooking is calm and beautiful.

You are leaving Old Sarum and you are going to get on a bus of the Stonehenge Tour to Salisbury rail station. I would like to conclude our tour in Salisbury. See you later.