ヴェネツィア Venice 01

San Simeone Piccolo, the Canal Grande, the Ponte di Rialto, the Ponte dell’Accademia, Santa Maria della Salute, Dogana da Mar, the basilica of San Giorgio Maggiore, the Campanile di San Marco and the Palazzo Ducale (Venice, Italy)

  1. San Simeone Piccolo
  2. The Canal Grande
  3. The Ponte di Rialto
  4. The Ponte dell’Accademia
  5. Santa Maria della Salute
  6. Dogana da Mar
  7. The basilica of San Giorgio Maggiore
  8. The Campanile di San Marco
  9. The Palazzo Ducale

Venice is a city (around 260 thousand people) in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region. The city is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are separated by canals and are linked by bridges. The city was historically the capital of the Republic of Venice. The city has been known as the Queen of the Adriatic, the City of Water and so on.

It is said that the islands in the marshy lagoons of Venice was originally inhabited by fishermen. And also it is said that refugees came to the city from nearby Roman cities (such as Padua and Aquileia) and from the undefended countryside (who were fleeing successive waves of Germanic and Hun invasions). The foundation of the city is identified with the dedication of the first church of the city on the islet of Rialto in 421.

The Roman defences were overthrown in the 5th century. The Visigoths invaded Italy and sacked Rome in 410. And also the Huns led by Attila invaded Italy in 452. The last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian peninsula was made by the Lombards in 568. The immigration left the Eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire) a small strip of coast including Venice.

In 697 the first Doge (doge is the Venetian dialect development of the Latin dux (leader) and the corresponding word in English is duke) of Venice was elected and the Republic of Venice was established. The Lombard conquered most of the Byzantine territory around the city in 751 and left the city a lonely autonomous Byzantine outpost. Charlemagne sought to subdue the city to his own rule. Pepin of Italy (the son of Charlemagne and King of the Lombards) besieged the city for 6 months. However the army of Pepin was ravaged by the diseases of the local swamps and was forced to withdraw in 810 (A few months later Pepin died because of the disease). Afterwards an agreement between Charlemagne and the Byzantine Emperor in 814 recognised the city as Byzantine territory and granted the city trading rights along the Adriatic coast.

In 828 the prestige of Venice increased with the acquisition of the claimed relics of St. Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria. The autonomy of the city grew as the city continued to develop and as Byzantine power waned.

Venice always traded extensively with the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world as the city is situated on the Adriatic Sea. The city became a flourishing trade centre between Western Europe and the rest of the world with a naval power protecting sea routes from piracy. The city was the most prosperous city in all of Europe by the late 13th century.

The Fourth Crusade set out from Venice to Egypt in 1202 and then veered off course. In 1204 the crusading army sacked Constantinople and established the Latin Empire. The Byzantine Empire was partitioned among the crusading army and the Venetians. Venice subsequently carved out a sphere of influence in the Mediterranean and captured Crete.

The Ottoman Empire ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. Subsequently he declared war on Venice and the war cost the city much of its eastern Mediterranean possessions.

Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in 1492. And then Vasco da Gama of Portugal found a sea route to India by rounding the Cape of Good Hope during his first voyage from 1497 to 1499. The land route monopoly of Venice was destroyed and the city was left behind in the race for colonies because its oared galleys were at a disadvantage in traversing the great oceans.

Napoleon Bonaparte conquered Venice in 1797 and the Republic of Venice lost its independence. And then the city became Austrian territory by the Treaty of Campo Formio, was taken from Austria to Napoleon in 1805 and eventually was returned to Austria following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814. Afterwards the city became part of the Kingdom of Italy in 1866 after the Third Italian War of Independence.

It takes 4 hours by rail from Rome to Venice (from Roma Termini station to Venezia Santa Lucia station).

San Simeone PiccoloSan Simeone Piccoloサンタ・ルチーア鉄道駅は、ヴェネツィアの主要な鉄道駅で、歴史都市の北西の橋に位置しています。熱心党のシモンとタダイと呼ばれるユダ(聖ユダ)の教会が、サンタ・ルチーア鉄道駅のカナル・グランデ(大運河)を渡って正面に立っています。熱心党のシモンとタダイと呼ばれるユダ(聖ユダ)の教会は、1718~1738年に建てられました。
Santa Lucia railway station is the central station of Venice and is located at the northern edge of the historic city. San Simeone Piccolo (also called San Simeone e Giuda) stands in front of the station across the Canal Grande (the Grand Canal). The church was built from 1718 to 1738.

The Canal Grandeヴァポレット(公共の水上バス)乗り場が、サンタ・ルチーア鉄道駅の正面にあります。サン・マルコ広場へ向かうため、カナル・グランデを行くヴァポレットに乗りました。
There is a vaporetto (public water bus) stop in front of Santa Lucia railway station. You got on a vaporetto going along the Grand Canal to go towards the Piazza San Marco.

The Canal GrandeThe Canal Grandeカナル・グランデは、ヴェネツィアの主要な交通路の一つです。公共交通は、水上バス(ヴァポレット)、水上タクシー、ゴンドラがあります。カナル・グランデは、ヴェネツィアの中心地区を通る大きな逆S字の形をしています。カナル・グランデの一端はサンタ・ルチーア鉄道駅の近くの潟に続き、他の端はサン・マルコ流域に続いています。カナル・グランデは、長さ3.8キロメートル、幅30~90メートル、平均深さ5メートルあります。
The Canal Grande (the Grand Canal) forms one of the major traffic corridors in Venice. Public transport is provided by water buses (vaporetti), private water taxis and gondolas. The canal makes a large reverse-S shape through the central districts of the city. One end of the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into the San Marco Basin. The canal is 3.8 kilometres long and 30 to 90 meters wide with an average depth of 5 meters.

The Canal Grande多くの観光客は、ゴンドラに乗ってカナル・グランデを探索します。ゴンドラは、ヴェネツィアの伝統的な平底の手漕ぎボートです。ゴンドラは、ヴェネツィアの潟の条件にとても適しています。ゴンドラは、船首に向かって立ってオールを漕ぐゴンドリエーレによって進みます。
Many tourists explore the Grand Canal by gondola. The gondola is a Venetian traditional flat-bottomed rowing boat. The gondola is well suited to the conditions of the Venetian lagoon. The gondola is propelled by a gondolier who stands facing the bow and rows.

The Canal Grandeゴンドラは、現在も、ヴェネツィアの公共交通機関としての役割を果たしています。数少ないゴンドラは、2名の漕ぎ手によるカナル・グランデを渡すトラゲット(小さなフェリー)として運航しています。他のゴンドラは、固定料金で観光客を運びます。
The gondola boats still have a role in public transport in Venice. A few gondola boats run as traghetti (small ferries) over the Grand Canal operated by 2 oarsmen. The other gondola boats run to carry tourists on rides at fixed rates.

The Canal Grandeゴンドラは、何世紀もの間、ヴェネツィアの主な交通手段であり最も一般的な船でした。16世紀には約10000、1858年には約4000、現在は約400のゴンドラがあります。数は減少しましたが、手作りの粗末なものに代わって、現在のゴンドラはエレガントな乗り物です。バナナ形状の現在のゴンドラは、19世紀に発展しました。ヴェネツィア政府がそれ以上の近代化を禁止した20世紀中頃まで、ゴンドラの建造は進化し続けました。
The gondola was the chief means of transportation and most common watercraft within Venice for centuries.
There were approximately 10,000 gondola boats in the 16th century, approximately 4,000 in 1858 and now approximately 400. The modern gondola boats are elegant craft instead of the various types of shabby home made boats though the number has reduced. The banana-shaped modern gondola was developed in the 19th century. The construction of the gondola continued to evolve until the middle of the 20th century when the city government prohibited any further modifications.

The Canal Grandeゴンドラは、長さ10.8メートル、幅1.4メートル、重量700キログラムです。ゴンドラは、8様々な種類の木材を使用した280片の手作りの木片で作られます。作業には、約2ヶ月を要します。ゴンドラの前面にある装飾は、フェッロ(「鉄」の意味)と呼ばれますが、真鍮、ステンレス鋼またはアルミニウムの場合もあります。フェッロは、装飾の役割や、船尾近くに立つゴンドリエーレとバランスを取るおもりの役割を果たします。
The gondola is 10.8 metres long and 1.4 metres wide with a weight of 700 kilograms. The gondola is made of 280 hand-made pieces using various types of wood. The process takes about 2 months. The ornament on the front of the gondola is called the fèrro (meaning iron) and can be made from brass, stainless steel or aluminium. The ornament serves as decoration and as counterweight for the gondolier standing near the stern.

The Ponte di Rialtoリアルト橋は、カナル・グランデに架かる4つの橋のうち最も古い橋です。
The Ponte di Rialto (the Rialto Bridge) is the oldest of the 4 bridges spanning the Grand Canal.

The Ponte di Rialtoリアルト橋の地点のカナル・グランデを渡す最初の橋は、1181年に建てられた舟橋でした。東岸のリアルト市場の発展と重要性によって、舟橋の交通量が増大しました。それで、舟橋は、1255年に木造の橋に置き換えられました。木造の橋の構造は、両端に傾斜、背の高い船が通過できる可動式の中央部となっていました。また、2列の店舗が、15世紀前半の間に橋の端に沿って建てられました。橋は、1310年に一部焼失しました。さらに、1444年には船のパレードを見ていた群衆の重さによって崩壊し、1524年にも再び崩壊しました。現在の石造りの橋は、1591年に完成しました。橋は、かつての木造の橋と似た作りです。
The first dry crossing of the Grand Canal at the Rialto Bridge was a pontoon bridge built in 1181. The development and importance of the Rialto market on the eastern bank increased traffic on the floating bridge. So the floating bridge was replaced in 1255 by a wooden bridge. This structure had 2 inclined ramps meeting at a movable central section that could be raised to allow the passage of tall ships. Moreover, 2 rows of shops were built along the sides of the bridge during the first half of the 15th century. The bridge was partly burnt in 1310. Furthermore, the bridge collapsed under the weight of a crowd watching a boat parade in 1444 and the bridge collapsed again in 1524. The present stone bridge was completed in 1591. The bridge is similar to the former wooden bridge.

The Ponte di RialtoThe Ponte di Rialtoリアルト橋を離れていきます。
You are leaving the Rialto Bridge.

The Canal GrandeThe Canal GrandeThe Canal GrandeThe Canal GrandeThe Canal Grandeヴァポレットは、引き続きカナル・グランデを進んでいきます。
Your vaporetto are continuously going along the Grand Canal.

The Ponte dell'Accademiaアッカデーミア橋は、カナル・グランデに架かる4つの橋の一つです。アッカデーミア橋は、カナル・グランデの最南端近くに架かっています。最初の鉄製の橋は、1854年に開通しました。その後、アッカデーミア橋は、1933年に木造の橋に置き換えられました。構造を支える金属製のアーチが、1986年に加えられました。
The Ponte dell’Accademia is one of 4 bridges to span the Grand Canal. The bridge crosses near the southern end of the canal. The original steel bridge opened in 1854. And then the bridge was replaced by a wooden bridge in 1933. The metal arches supporting the structure was added in 1986.

The Canal GrandeThe Canal GrandeThe Canal GrandeThe Canal GrandeThe Canal Grandeヴァポレットは、さらにカナル・グランデを進んでいきます。
Your vaporetto are further going along the Grand Canal.

Santa Maria della Saluteサンタ・マリア・デッラ・サルーテ聖堂(救済の聖母マリア聖堂)が、サン・マルコ流域近くのカナル・グランデとジュデッカ運河の間の指状の場所に立っています。サンタ・マリア・デッラ・サルーテ聖堂は、カトリック教会のマイナー・バシリカです。サンタ・マリア・デッラ・サルーテ聖堂は、一般に簡単にサルーテと呼ばれています。サンタ・マリア・デッラ・サルーテ聖堂は、救済の聖母マリアに献堂されており、1630年のペスト大流行の後、1631~1687年にバロック様式で建てられました。ヴェネツィアの政府は、毎年11月21日の聖母マリアの祝日にサンタ・マリア・デッラ・サルーテ聖堂を訪問してきました。この訪問は、マドンナ・デッラ・サルーテ祭として知られ、サン・マルコ地区からサンタ・マリア・デッラ・サルーテ聖堂への市の公式パレードです。パレードは、カナル・グランデを特別に作られた舟橋の上を渡っていきます。マドンナ・デッラ・サルーテ祭は、今もヴェネツィアの主要行事の一つです。
Santa Maria della Salute (the Basilica of St. Mary of Health) stands on the finger between the Grand Canal and the Giudecca Canal near the San Marco Basin. The basilica is a minor basilica of the Catholic Church. The basilica is commonly known simply as the Salute. The basilica is dedicated to St. Mary of Health and was built from 1631 to 1687 in the Baroque style after the outbreak of the plague in 1630. The Senate of Venice has visited the basilica on November 21 the Feast of the Presentation of the Virgin every year in order to celebrate the deliverance from the plague. The visit is known as the Festa della Madonna della Salute and the officials parade of the city from San Marco to the basilica. The parade involved crossing the canal on a specially constructed pontoon bridge. The festa is still one of the major events in the city.

Dogana da Marドガナ・ダ・マールと呼ばれるかつての税関が、指の先端に立っています。ドガナ・ダ・マールは、1678~1682年に建てられました。ヴァポレットは、サン・マルコ流域に入っていきます。
The former customs house called Dogana da Mar stands on the end of the finger. The building was built from 1678 to 1682. Your vaporetto are entering into the San Marco Basin.

San Giorgio Maggioreサン・ジョルジョ・マッジョーレ聖堂が、同名の島に立っています。同島の最初の教会は、790年頃に建てられました。その後、島は982年にベネディクト会へ与えられ、修道院が創設されました。教会と修道院は、1223年の地震の後に再建されました。その後再び、教会は、1566~1610年にルネサンス様式で再建されました。最初の鐘楼は、1467年に建てられましたが、1774年に倒壊しました。鐘楼は、1791年にルネサンス様式で再建されました。
The basilica of San Giorgio Maggiore stands on the island of the same name. The first church on the island was built about 790. The island was given to the Benedictine order in 982 and a monastery was founded. The church and the monastery were rebuilt after an earthquake in 1223. And again the church was rebuilt in the Renaissance style from 1566 to 1610. The first campanile (bell tower) was built in 1467 but fell in 1774. The bell tower was rebuilt in the Neoclassical style by 1791.

The Campanile di San MarcoThe Campanile di San MarcoThe Campanile di San Marcoヴァポレットは、サン・マルコ流域を進んでいきます。サン・マルコの鐘楼が左手に見えます。
Your vaporetto are going through the San Marco Basin. You can see the Campanile di San Marco (St. Mark’s Campanile) on the left hand.

The Campanile di San Marco and the Palazzo DucaleThe Palazzo Ducaleヴァポレットの旅は、終わりに近づいていきます。ドゥカーレ宮殿が、サン・マルコ流域に面して立っています。ドゥカーレ宮殿は、ヴェネツィア総督の住まいでした。政庁の所在地がリアルト地域から移され、ゴシック様式の宮殿が1340年頃に建てられました。ドゥカーレ宮殿は、1923年から美術館として一般公開されています。
Your vaporetto journey is coming to an end. The Palazzo Ducale (the Doge’s Palace) stands on the San Marco Basin. The palace was the residence of the Doge of Venice. The seat of the government was moved to this site from the area of Rialto and the Gothic palace was built around 1340. The palace has been open to the public as a museum since 1923.

You are going to walk around Venice continuously next time. See you later.